1. This process selectively captures and concentrates specific macromolecules within clathrin-coated pits and vesicles.
- Receptor-mediated endocytosis A complex process called receptor-mediated endocytosis enables cells to selectively internalise particular macromolecules. It starts with ligands, like as hormones or enzymes, attaching to particular receptors on the cell surface. These receptors cluster together, forming coated pits that are lined with a protein called clathrin. The assembly of clathrin molecules creates a lattice-like structure, which gives rise to clathrin-coated vesicles. These vesicles bud off from the plasma membrane, enclosing the ligands bound to their respective receptors. Once inside the cell, the vesicles shed their clathrin coat and fuse with endosomes, which are membrane-bound compartments that sort and direct the cargo to different intracellular destinations. Receptor-mediated endocytosis enables cells to tightly regulate the uptake of specific molecules and is crucial for processes such as nutrient uptake, signal transduction, and receptor recycling.