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The development of clinical psychology as an academic field date back to the late 19th century, when the concept first began to be applied. One of the early influences on the field was Sigmund Freud. The Austrian psychoanalyst emphasized the role that talking therapy and psychoanalysis can play in treating mental illness. He reasoned that patients who were open about their innermost thoughts could cure themselves via talk therapy, in much the same way that a doctor can assist his patient with an illness by simply telling him what's wrong or what he needs to do differently.
Clinical psychology is the area of psychology that deals with diagnosing and treating psychiatric issues, aberrant behavior, and mental illnesses. People searching for a hard and fulfilling profession might consider this subject since it combines the science of psychology with the treatment of difficult human issues.
The first of several application-focused specializations to emerge within psychology was clinical psychology. A few other similar disciplines were formerly a part of clinical psychology until they broke away and developed into more autonomous fields of study. As a result, at least a portion of school psychology started out as clinical psychology in a classroom. A portion of clinical psychology at rehab clinics or university guidance departments served as the foundation for counseling psychology. Another offshoot, clinical health psychology, used analogous concepts, techniques of evaluation, and interventions to treat psychological issues connected to physical health issues. Clinical neuropsychology strongly collaborates with neurology in medicine and is focused on the detailed examination of brain-behavior interactions.
It is well known that American psychologist Lightner Witmer coined the phrase "clinical psychology" in 1907. Clinical psychology is the study of people via observation or experimentation with the aim of fostering change, according to Lightner Witmer, who defined it in his psychological research.
Clinical psychology is a vast field that deals with diagnosing and treating people who have emotional, cognitive, and behavioral issues as well as researching psychopathology. It is perhaps the most widespread psychological specialty in the world (Sexton & Hogan, 1992), despite the fact that it is defined and structured slightly differently in each nation.
Despite being a relatively recent area of psychology, clinical psychology has origins that goes back to the late 19th century. According to historical information on clinical psychology, Lightner Witmer's introduction of the fundamental ideas of animal and human perception into educational practice marked the beginning of the successful practical application of psychological science. In 1896, he established the first psychiatric clinic as the discipline's founder. To assist patients with a variety of mental health conditions, the early practical use of psychological techniques evolved into the use of specialized therapeutic techniques. Different therapeutic philosophies of psychoanalysis, where unconscious functioning played a significant part, had a significant impact on the development of clinical psychology. Of course, clinical psychology has undergone significant development. For instance, in the 20th century, new types of clinical treatments emerged, and psychoanalysis was transformed into psychotherapy. It is well known that the post-WWII era, from 1945 to 1950, saw the development of clinical psychology as a field of study and a profession.
The first psychiatric clinic was established in the 1800s, based on historical information, at the University of Pennsylvania. The initial psychiatric clinic's professionals did not pay much attention to the unique therapy approaches, nevertheless. Since the majority of the troops who took part in the war activities required appropriate mental care, it is well known that the development of both diagnostic and treatment procedures occurred during the post-World War II era. It's noteworthy to note that early clinical psychology focused on the influence of certain physical characteristics of the human body on the mind, such as various facial features, the shape of the head, the texture of the hair, and so on. Furthermore, it is well known that the work of clinical psychologists was not highly valued in 19th-century society. Because they believed that imprecise science shouldn't be established, some people even opposed this field of study. The main cause was determined to be that the trials couldn't be repeated.
However, as the troops started to return from World War II and the majority of them were suffering from PTSS or Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome, the opponents of clinical psychology altered their minds. Clinical psychologists' profession took on a greater significance since thousands of troops required appropriate care. What's more intriguing is that the female clinical psychologists' work with the troops who had just returned from combat was halted. They were occupied with something else. The impacts of war on those who stayed at home and did not participate in military activities were the focus of the female clinical psychologists. The National Council of Women Psychologists was established by them. In the 1960s, as clinical psychology grew, a large number of educational institutions also grew, providing training for future professionals. Therefore, this field of study has been evolving consistently to fulfil the demands of a changing society and offer psychological support in the right method.
The selection of a few people as significant characters in a field with less than a century of history is always somewhat arbitrary. This conversation will be limited to those who are no longer alive. Alfred Binet, the co-creator of the first reliable intelligence test, was one of these pioneers (Binet & Simon. 1905). Since then, many iterations have been used in clinical settings to identify children with mental retardation from their counterparts who were usually developing. Lewis M. Terman (1916), who used huge groups of kids of various ages to standardize Binet's test and establish norms for it, made an important contribution to this field of study. Terman (1925; Terman & Oden, 1947) later went on to show the test's long-term dependability and its predictive value for both academic success and other life accomplishments. The University of California at Berkeley's Jean W. Macfarlane then had the foresight to transform faulty research of the effects of clinical advice on young infants into a life-span study of population development. She and her peers, including Erik Erikson, focused on characteristics of personality and social adjustment in addition to cognitive development.
Carl R. Rogers contributed to the change in clinical psychology's emphasis on psychotherapy intervention from an unduly exclusive focus on mental testing in the 1940s (Rogers, 1951). Although the client- or person-centered approach to psychotherapy was unique to Rogers, it was subtly inspired by Freud, according to the social worker Jessie Taft and psychologist-psychoanalyst Otto Rank. Rogers had the audacity to do a controlled study on the course and results of psychotherapy, as well as to tape-record actual treatment sessions.
Clinical psychological evaluations began to include cognitive functioning, psychopathology, and personality. Starke R. Hathaway, a co-author of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, created one of the most cutting-edge projects in this area (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley. 1943). The MMPI was empirically verified utilizing groups of patients with specific psychiatric diagnoses compared to normal control participants, in contrast to prior questionnaire assessments of psychopathology. Additionally, the MMPI had brand-new "validity" ratings that allowed psychologists to spot respondents' attempts to lie or present themselves in an unfairly positive or negative light. Patterns of understanding were also detected using the validity measures. confusion or unpredictable behavior.
George A. Kelly created several novel methods for analyzing how people interpret their social environment. His personal construct theory (Kelly, 1955) served as the foundation for an intervention strategy that was perhaps the first instance of cognitive therapy, currently one of the most popular types of therapy.
Hans Eysenck established a Psychology Department at the University of London's Institute of Psychiatry in the United Kingdom. Eysenck created his own personality and psychopathology evaluation questionnaires, which were influential and extensively utilized. Although not without its own shortcomings, he wrote a critique of the efficacy of psychotherapy that sparked worldwide study on psychosocial intervention (Eysenck. 1952). Eysenck also pioneered the promotion of behavioral treatment techniques. Beginning in the 1960s, they started to exert a significant effect on clinical psychology.
In conclusion, it is essential to note that clinical psychology is crucial to our lives since it is so impossible to escape stressors and psychological issues in today's world. This paper's extensive historical perspective demonstrates how clinical psychology is always evolving. Clinical psychologists play a crucial role in our society since they assist people in bettering their psychological well-being and coping with challenging circumstances.
1. How would this research area in psychology bring benefits to our community?
2. How can the benefits be measured?
3. Personal reflections